What happened this week in history

In 1542, Mary acceded to the throne of Scotland, becoming its first Queen.

Actress and comedian Miranda Hart celebrates her 43rd birthday this week

1656 - Artificial pearls were manufactured for the first time in Paris. They were made of gypsum pellets covered with fish scales.

1782 - The Montgolfier brothers’ first balloon lifted off on its first test flight.

1861 - Albert, Prince Consort died at Windsor Castle, aged 42.

1896 - The Glasgow Underground Railway was opened by the Glasgow District Subway Company.

1903 - The Wright brothers made their first attempt to fly with the Wright Flyer, at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.

1911 - Roald Amundsen led the first expedition to the South Pole, beating Captain Scott by 35 days.

1918 - British women over the age of 30 voted in a general election for the first time.

1918 - Portuguese President Sidónio Pais was assassinated.

1932 - Leeds took on Wigan at the White City Stadium in the first rugby league match played under floodlights.

1939 - The Soviet Union was expelled from the League of Nations for invading Finland.

1940 - Plutonium (specifically Pu-238) was first isolated at Berkeley, California.

1947 - Santiago Bernabéu Stadium, home of Real Madrid, staged its first football match.

1962 - US Mariner II sent the first close-up pictures of Venus back to Earth.

1963 - I Want to Hold Your Hand knocked She Loves You off the top spot in the UK charts. It was the first time a band (The Beatles) dethroned themselves.

1973 - A Save Britain fund started in Uganda to help Britain out of its financial crisis.

1990 - After 30 years in exile, ANC President Oliver Tambo returned to South Africa.

1998 - A burglar from Leeds was jailed after experts identified his earprint from the crime scene.

2003 - Saddam Hussein was captured by US forces. He was found in a makeshift bolthole in the floor of a two-roomed hut.

2004 - The Millau Viaduct, the tallest bridge in the world, was formally inaugurated near Millau, France.