1852 - English astronomer John Russell Hind discovered the asteroid 22 Kalliope.
1855 - David Livingstone became the first European to see Victoria Falls in what is now present-day Zambia-Zimbabwe.
1904 - English engineer John Ambrose Fleming received a patent for the thermionic valve (vacuum tube).
1920 - Qantas, Australia’s national airline, was founded as Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services Limited.
1940 - In response to the levelling of Coventry by the German Luftwaffe two days before, the Royal Air Force bombed Hamburg.
1940 - In occupied Poland, the Nazis closed off the Warsaw Ghetto from the outside world.
1945 - Unesco (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization)was founded.
1961 - Great Britain limited immigration from Commonwealth countries.
1965 - The Soviet Union launched the Venera 3 space probe toward Venus. It became the first spacecraft to reach the surface of another planet.
1979 - Sir Anthony Blunt, a former security service officer, was revealed as the ‘fourth man’ in the Philby affair.
1988 - In the first open election for more than a decade, voters in Pakistan elected populist candidate Benazir Bhutto as their Prime Minister.
1990 - Pop group Milli Vanilli were stripped of their Grammy Award because the duo did not sing at all on the Girl You Know It’s True album. Session musicians had provided all the vocals.
1992 - The Hoxne Hoard was discovered by metal detectorist Eric Lawes in Hoxne, Suffolk. It is the largest hoard of late Roman silver and gold discovered in Britain and the largest collection of gold and silver coins of the fourth and fifth century found anywhere within the Roman Empire.