1781 - Lord Cornwallis surrendered to General Washington at Yorktown, Virginia, marking the end of the American War of Independence.
1860 - The first company to manufacture internal combustion engines was formed in Florence, Italy.
1872 - The Holtermann nugget was mined at Hill. End, Mew South Wales. It weighed 630lbs and was the largest gold-bearing nugget ever found.
1914 - The First Battle of Ypres began.
1922 - Conservative MPs, meeting at the Carlton Club, voted to break off the coalition Government with David Lloyd George of the Liberal Party.
1933 - Germany withdrew from the League of Nations.
1943 - Streptomycin, the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis, was isolated by researchers at Rutgers University.
1950 - The People’s Republic of China joined the Korean War by sending thousands of troops across the Yalu River to fight United Nations forces.
1960 - The United States government imposed a near-total trade embargo against Cuba. It was not lifted until 2015.
1987 - Wall Street suffered Black Monday, when millions of pounds were wiped out in stockmarkets around the world.
1988 - The government imposed a broadcasting ban on television and radio interviews with members of Sinn Féin and 11 Irish republican and Ulster loyalist paramilitary groups.
1989 - After serving 14 years in prison, the Guildford Four had their convictions quashed in just half-an-hour.
1999 - Sir Elton John and Tim Rice’s £6.5 million new musical The Lion King opened in London’s West End. It is still running, at The Lyceum Theatre.
2002 - Everton footballer Wayne Rooney, at just 16 years of age, scored a wonder goal, ending Arsenal’s 30-match unbeaten run.
2003 -Mother Teresa was beatified by Pope John Paul II.
2005 - Saddam Hussein went on trial in Baghdad for crimes against humanity.