1502 - Christopher Columbus landed on the island of Martinique on his fourth voyage.
1667 - The first human blood transfusion was administered by Dr Jean-Baptiste Denys.
1785 – Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier, co-pilot of the first-ever manned flight (1783), and his companion, Pierre Romain, became the first-ever casualties of an air crash when their hot air balloon exploded during their attempt to cross the English Channel.
1844 - Charles Goodyear received a patent for vulcanisation, a process to strengthen rubber.
1860 - Florence Nightingale opened her first school for nurses.
1869 - Celluloid was patented in America.
1877 - Henry Ossian Flipper became the first African American cadet to graduate from the United States Military Academy.
1878 - Eadweard Muybridge took a series of photographs to prove all four feet of a horse leave the ground when it runs; the study became the basis of motion pictures.
1919 - British aviators Alcock and Brown completed the first non-stop transatlantic flight, when they reached Clifden, County Galway, Ireland.
1928 - The Flying Scotsman (locomotive) narrowly beat an aeroplane in a race from London to Edinburgh.
1936 - The Vickers Wellington bomber took its maiden flight.
1940 - Operation Ariel began: Allied troops started to evacuate France, following Germany’s takeover of Paris and most of the nation.
1954 - UEFA (Union of European Football Associations) formed in Basel, Switzerland.
1970 - Charles Manson went on trial for the Sharon Tate murders.
1978 - King Hussein of Jordan married American Lisa Halaby (Queen Noor).
1996 - A massive bomb devastated a busy shopping area in central Manchester; 200 people were injured.
2012 - Nik Wallenda became the first person to successfully tightrope walk over Niagara Falls.